Ankle Fracture Surgery

Ankle fractures occur when one or more bones in the ankle joint break or crack. Depending on the severity and type of fracture, surgery may be recommended to realign and stabilize the bones, facilitating proper healing and restoring joint function. Here’s a comprehensive overview of ankle fracture surgery, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options:



Ankle fractures can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Trauma from falls, accidents, or sports-related injuries.
  • Twisting or rolling the ankle forcefully.
  • High-energy impact or direct trauma to the ankle area.
  • Osteoporosis, which weakens bones and makes them more susceptible to fractures.


Common symptoms of an ankle fracture include:

  • Severe pain around the ankle joint.
  • Swelling and bruising.
  • Inability to bear weight on the affected leg.
  • Deformity or abnormal alignment of the ankle.
  • Limited range of motion and difficulty moving the foot.
  • Tenderness to touch.


A healthcare provider will diagnose an ankle fracture through a combination of:

  • Physical Examination: Assessing the ankle for swelling, tenderness, and deformities.
  • X-rays: Imaging to visualize the bones and determine the type and severity of the fracture.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): In some cases, an MRI may be performed to assess soft tissue damage.

Treatment Options:

Treatment for an ankle fracture depends on the type and severity of the fracture. Surgical intervention may be considered when:

  • The fracture is displaced (bones are not properly aligned).
  • The fracture involves multiple bone fragments.
  • The fracture affects joint stability.
  • The fracture is open (bone breaks through the skin) or accompanied by significant soft tissue damage.

Surgical Procedure:

Ankle fracture surgery typically involves:

  • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF): Surgeons make an incision to access the fracture site, realign the bones, and stabilize them using screws, plates, or rods.
  • External Fixation: A device outside the body holds the bones in place to facilitate healing.
  • Intramedullary Nailing: A metal rod is inserted into the medullary canal of the bone to stabilize it.

Recovery and Rehabilitation:

After surgery:

  • A cast, splint, or brace is applied to immobilize the ankle.
  • Weight-bearing status and activity level are determined by the surgeon, often progressing from non-weight bearing to partial or full weight-bearing.
  • Physical therapy focuses on restoring joint mobility, strength, and flexibility.
  • Follow-up appointments and imaging monitor healing progress.

Complications and Risks:

Possible complications of ankle fracture surgery include infection, blood clots, nerve or blood vessel damage, non-union (failure of bones to heal), malunion (improper bone alignment), and joint stiffness.


To reduce the risk of ankle fractures:

  • Wear appropriate footwear for activities that provide ankle support and cushioning.
  • Be cautious on slippery surfaces and uneven terrain.
  • Warm up before physical activities and perform exercises to improve ankle strength and flexibility.
  • Follow proper safety guidelines when participating in sports.


Ankle fracture surgery aims to realign and stabilize fractured bones, promoting healing and restoring joint function. Timely medical evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment, including surgery when needed, can lead to successful recovery and a return to an active and functional lifestyle.